APWH Unit 6
War and conflict defined this period as fragile alliances unraveled, giving way to independence movements across the world in the colonial holdings of former industrial powerhouses, moving the world toward a new global culture. Major characteristics and topics that distinguish the time period 1914 - present include the following:
- The 20th century was marked by conflict and diplomacy, witnessing two world wars, and eventually a change in the nature of warfare with the Cold War between the United States and the Soviet Union, leading to the proliferation of international organizations to address the changing balance of power in the world.
- Nationalism continued to shape interactions among nations as large empires broke into smaller ethnic based countries, with widespread decolonization after World War II both reflected and promoted via nationalism in former colonies.
- Global Depression affected some countries more than others, but it had a profound economic impact on both industrialized and non-industrialized areas as well as on world trade. New technologies promoted economic development in Pacific Rim countries and contributed to the emerging importance of multinational corporations.
- Revolutions shook Russia, China, and many Latin American countries, leading to experimentation with different versions of communism, socialism, and capitalism, with some turning to authoritarian methods and others to democracy.
- Social reform and revolution led to changes in gender roles, family structures, the rise of feminism, peasant protest, and international Marxism.
- Massive movements of people to industrialized countries continued to shape the world while the environment was altered by continued urbanization and deforestation as significant green/environmental movements emerged to resist the changes.
Major Comparisons and Snapshots:
- Compare patterns and results of decolonization in Africa and India.
- Pick two revolutions (Russian, Chinese, Cuban, Iranian) and compare their effects on the roles of women.
- Compare the effects of the World Wars on areas outside of Europe.
- Compare legacies of colonialism and patterns of economic development in two of three areas (Africa, Asia, and Latin America).
- Analyze the notion of “the West” and “the East” in the context of Cold War ideology.
- Compare nationalist ideologies and movements in contrasting European and colonial environments.
- Compare the different types of independence struggles.
- Compare the impacts of Western consumer society on two civilizations outside of Europe.
- Assess different proposals (or models) for economic growth in the developing world and social and political consequences.
Need to Know vs. Not Need to Know:
- Causes of the World Wars, but not battles in the wars.
- Cultural and political transformations resulting from the wars, but not French political and cultural history.
- Authoritarian regimes, but not Mussolini’s or Vargas’s internal policies.
- Feminism and gender relations, but not Simone de Beauvoir or Huda Shaarawi.
- The growth of international organizations, but not the history of the ILO.
- Colonial independence movements, but not the details of a particular struggle.
- The issue of genocide, but not Cambodia, Rwanda, or Kosovo.
- The internationalization of popular culture, but not the Beatles.